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Below you can find all the essential information on mountaineering, its origins, how to do it with the basic terms and required tools you will need. The best places to go for mountaineering in Türkiye and all around the world are also included for adventurous souls.

What is Mountaineering?

what is mountaineering

Mountaineering, otherwise known as mountain climbing, is a very popular outdoor sport. There are thousands of mountains in the world, all with their own unique terrain, their own challenges and excitements. 

Origins of Mountaineering

Mountaineering has been a common practice if not exactly a hobby for as long as time. People have been scaling mountains for as a hobby since as early as 1336. Sir Alfred Wills’ ascent of the Swiss Wetterhorn in 1865 is considered to be the birth of mountaineering as a sport.

Mountaineering is a lifelong philosophy rather than a mere hobby. 

Unlike most other extreme sports, mountaineering is uniquely suited to be a lifelong hobby rather than a one-time experience; base jumping and cliff diving may be fun the first few times, but it’s the same activity every time. In contrast, with mountaineering every mountain is a new experience, not to mention the feeling of achievement from conquering each new mountain.

Winter Mountaineering

Winter mountaineering is a more difficult, riskier and much more rewarding activity. Most people choose to climb in the summer, so the routes are much less crowded in the winter. This can be especially desirable in the more popular summits. The added difficulty also works to exponentially increase the satisfaction and sense of achievement gained from a triumphant climb. Another advantage is that you can choose to climb a mountain on which you can have a ski vacation for a complete winter holiday.

How to do Mountaineering?

mountaineering types

There are two main styles of mountaineering: Alpine and Expedition. Alpine mountaineering is practiced in medium sized mountains, as opposed to the expedition style’s larger mountains. 

Alpine mountaineers pack light and move quick and they make a swift push to the peak. This is possible as medium sized mountains, like the Alps or the Rocky Mountains, can be scaled relatively more quickly. 

Expedition mountaineers, on the other hand, move slow and carry much heavier loads. This is necessitated as these larger mountains, like the Himalayas and the Alaska Range, take weeks or months to climb and as the journey between base camps is much longer. Expeditioners can even travel with pack animals.

Mountaineering Terms


An anchor is what mountaineers use to secure the rope against the rock, ice or snow.


A carabiner is a tool that is used to fasten ropes, and is used commonly for outdoor sports. 


The upper section of a mountain where the terrain is steeper.


A pile of rock or wood used to mark a particular route.

Mountaineering Knots

Knots are very important to mountaineering, and some of the more popular ones are the Figure Eight, the Alpine Butterfly, the Bowline and the Zeppelin Bend.

Mountaineering Rules

Mountaineering is not an easy activity, nor is it without danger. That’s why, although there are no official global rules to mountaineering, mountaineers hold three golden rules as their mantra: “It’s always farther than it looks, it’s always taller than it looks and it’s always harder than it looks.” As long as you’re well prepared and you don’t underestimate the activity, you should be fine.

Belay Stations

A vital part of the activity is setting up belay stations. As defined above, delay stations are the safety nets of mountaineering and detailed instructions on setting up a proper belay station can be found here.

Mountaineering Equipment List: What Equipment is Needed for Mountaineering?

mountaineering equipment list

The equipment you’ll need will vary depending on your chosen mountain and route, for instance in a snowy route you might need an avalanche transceiver, whereas in an icy route you might need an ice axe. You’ll find a list of the essentials below:

  • A map 
  • Compass
  • Light source
  • Basic materials to build a fire
  • Knife
  • Tent
  • Rope
  • Harness
  • Boots and crampons
  • Belay device
  • Pulley
  • Climbing kit
  • Carabiners

What is the Best Time for Mountaineering?

where to do mountaineering

This very much depends on the mountain and the route, but usually spring, early autumn and summer are good times. It’s good to keep in mind that your route may be days and weeks long when planning the date.

Best Mountaineering Trails in Türkiye

Geyikbayırı- Antalya

Hundreds of routes with varying difficulties, a perfect mountain for climbers of all skills. Pegasus offers great deals on direct flights to Antalya, which you can check out here.

Aladağ Mountains- Kayseri- Niğde

Sometimes called the Alps of Türkiye, these are a popular climbing spot. The Cimbar Canyon is especially popular with experienced climbers. The mountains are on the border of Niğde and Kayseri, and Pegasus offers great deals on flights to Kayseri, which you can check out here.

Kaynak Mountains- İzmir

An annual “Kaynaklar Rock Climbing Festival” is held at the end of spring, making this destination a popular one among the mountaineers. Pegasus offers great deals on direct flights to İzmir, which you can check out here.

Lake Bafa- Muğla

A perfect place for “bouldering”, short rock climbs. The view of Lake Bafa is a beautiful company for this climb. You can get to Muğla, a small paradise on earth, most easily via İzmir. Pegasus offers great deals on flights to İzmir, which you can check out here.

Çitdibi- Antalya

Çitdibi is notorious for the challenge it offers. It is a mountain to conquer for the experienced climbers. Pegasus offers great deals on direct flights to Antalya for a great adventure.

Kaçkar Mountains- Rize

The best destination in Türkiye for icy routes are the Kaçkar Mountains. The sights from the peaks are one of a kind. You can reach Rize easily from Trabzon. Pegasus offers great deals on flights to Trabzon, which you can check out here.

Ballıkayalar Canyon- Kocaeli

More than a hundred routes coupled with its proximity to İstanbul makes this a preferred destination for mountaineers. The canyon is also a great spot for camping. Kocaeli is very close to Istanbul. You can reach İstanbul via Pegasus with the best prices. 

Datça- Muğla

A real challenge, this spot is not recommended unless you are very confident in your skills and experience as a mountaineer. You can get to Muğla easily from İzmir. Pegasus offers great deals on direct flights to İzmir, which you can check out here.

Uzundere- Erzurum

A great spot with a  rocky terrain in the summer and an icy terrain in the winter. An annual “International Ice Climbing Festival” held in January makes Uzundere a popular destination for climbers. You can get to Erzurum via Pegasus with the best deals.

Best Mountaineering Trails in the World

Mont Blanc- France

Mont Blanc is the tallest peak in Western Europe, standing at 4810 meters. Certainly a challenge, but not the most difficult Alpine peak, it is often preferred by climbers. Pegasus offers great deals on direct flights to Lyon, Marseille or Geneva, from where you can make your way to Mont Blanc.

The Matterhorn- Switzerland 

Perhaps the most iconic mountain in the world, The Matterhorn is what you see on Toblerone chocolate bars. Not too difficult a climb, but at around 10 hours of climbing with no long breaks, this is a classic Alpine mountaineering experience. Pegasus offers great deals on direct flights to Geneva, from which you can easily get to the Matterhorn. 

Toubkal- Morocco

Certainly a beautiful destination is the Toubkal. The journey involves not much climbing and is perfect for beginner mountaineers that want a satisfying journey, standing at 4167 meters altitude. Pegasus offers great deals on direct flights to Casablanca, from which you can make your way to Toubkal.  

If you are planning to travel with your equipment, there might be additional costs. You can click here to check the extra services price table.

Sports Equipment Additional Fees

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